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mal – Make a Lisp

mal – Make a Lisp

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1. Mal is a Clojure inspired Lisp interpreter

2. Mal is implemented in 79 languages (82 different implementations and 102 runtime modes)

| Language | Creator || ——– | ——- || Ada | Chris Moore || Ada #2 | Nicolas Boulenguez || GNU Awk | Miutsuru Kariya || Bash 4 | Joel Martin || BASIC (C64 & QBasic) | Joel Martin || BBC BASIC V | Ben Harris || C | Joel Martin || C++ | Stephen Thirlwall || C# | Joel Martin || ChucK | Vasilij Schneidermann || Clojure (Clojure & ClojureScript) | Joel Martin || CoffeeScript | Joel Martin || Common Lisp | Iqbal Ansari || Crystal | Linda_pp || D | Dov Murik || Dart | Harry Terkelsen || Elixir | Martin Ek || Elm | Jos van Bakel || Emacs Lisp | Vasilij Schneidermann || Erlang | Nathan Fiedler || ES6 (ECMAScript 2015) | Joel Martin || F# | Peter Stephens || Factor | Jordan Lewis || Fantom | Dov Murik || Forth | Chris Houser || GNU Guile | Mu Lei || GNU Smalltalk | Vasilij Schneidermann || Go | Joel Martin || Groovy | Joel Martin || Haskell | Joel Martin || Haxe (Neko, Python, C++, & JS) | Joel Martin || Hy | Joel Martin || Io | Dov Murik || Java | Joel Martin || JavaScript (Demo) | Joel Martin || Julia | Joel Martin || Kotlin | Javier Fernandez-Ivern || LiveScript | Jos van Bakel || Logo | Dov Murik || Lua | Joel Martin || GNU Make | Joel Martin || mal itself | Joel Martin || MATLAB (GNU Octave & MATLAB) | Joel Martin || miniMAL (Repo, Demo) | Joel Martin || NASM | Ben Dudson || Nim | Dennis Felsing || Object Pascal | Joel Martin || Objective C | Joel Martin || OCaml | Chris Houser || Perl | Joel Martin || Perl 6 | Hinrik Örn Sigurðsson || PHP | Joel Martin || Picolisp | Vasilij Schneidermann || Pike | Dov Murik || PL/pgSQL (PostgreSQL) | Joel Martin || PL/SQL (Oracle) | Joel Martin || PostScript | Joel Martin || PowerShell | Joel Martin || Python (2.X & 3.X) | Joel Martin || Python #2 (3.X) | Gavin Lewis || RPython | Joel Martin || R | Joel Martin || Racket | Joel Martin || Rexx | Dov Murik || Ruby | Joel Martin || Rust | Joel Martin || Scala | Joel Martin || Scheme (R7RS) | Vasilij Schneidermann || Skew | Dov Murik || Swift 2 | Keith Rollin || Swift 3 | Joel Martin || Swift 4 | 陆遥 || Swift 5 | Oleg Montak || Tcl | Dov Murik || TypeScript | Masahiro Wakame || Vala | Simon Tatham || VHDL | Dov Murik || Vimscript | Dov Murik || Visual Basic.NET | Joel Martin || WebAssembly (wasm) | Joel Martin || Wren | Dov Murik || Yorick | Dov Murik |

3. Mal is a learning tool

Each implementation of mal is separated into11 incremental, self-contained (and testable) steps that demonstratecore concepts of Lisp. The last step is capable of self-hosting(running the mal implementation of mal). See the make-a-lisp processguide.

The make-a-lisp steps are:

Each make-a-lisp step has an associated architectural diagram. That elementsthat are new for that step are highlighted in red.Here is the final diagram for step A:

stepA_mal architecture

If you are interested in creating a mal implementation (or justinterested in using mal for something), please drop by the #malchannel on freenode. In addition to the make-a-lisp processguide there is also a mal/make-a-lispFAQ where I attempt to answer some common questions.


Mal was presented publicly for the first time in a lightning talk atClojure West 2014 (unfortunately there is no video). Seeexamples/clojurewest2014.mal for the presentation that was given at theconference (yes, the presentation is a mal program).

At 2015, Joel Martin gave a presentation on Mal titled”Achievement Unlocked: A Better Path to Language Learning”.Video,Slides.

More recently Joel gave a presentation on “Make Your Own Lisp Interpreterin 10 Incremental Steps” at LambdaConf 2016:Part 1,Part 2,Part 3,Part 4,Slides.

Building/running implementations

The simplest way to run any given implementation is to use docker.Every implementation has a docker image pre-built with languagedependencies installed. You can launch the REPL using a convenienttarget in the top level Makefile (where IMPL is the implementationdirectory name and stepX is the step to run):

make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL^stepX" # OR stepA is the default step:make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL"

External Implementations

The following implementations are maintained as separate projects:



  • by Tim Morgan
  • by vi – using Pest grammar, not using typical Mal infrastructure (cargo-ized steps and built-in converted tests).

Other mal Projects

  • malc – Mal (Make A Lisp) compiler. Compiles a Mal program to LLVM assembly language, then binary.
  • malcc – malcc is an incremental compiler implementation for the Mal language. It uses the Tiny C Compiler as the compiler backend and has full support for the Mal language, including macros, tail-call elimination, and even run-time eval. “I Built a Lisp Compiler” post about the process.
  • frock – Clojure-flavoured PHP. Uses mal/php to run programs.
  • flk – A LISP that runs wherever Bash is

Implementation Details


The Ada implementation was developed with GNAT 4.9 on debian. It alsocompiles unchanged on windows if you have windows versions of git,GNAT and (optionally) make. There are no external dependencies(readline not implemented).

cd adamake./stepX_YYY


The second Ada implementation was developed with GNAT 8 and links withthe GNU readline library.

cd adamake./stepX_YYY

GNU awk

The GNU awk implementation of mal has been tested with GNU awk 4.1.1.

cd gawkgawk -O -f stepX_YYY.awk

Bash 4

cd bashbash

BASIC (C64 and QBasic)

The BASIC implementation uses a preprocessor that can generate BASICcode that is compatible with both C64 BASIC (CBM v2) and QBasic. TheC64 mode has been tested withcbmbasic (the patched version iscurrently required to fix issues with line input) and the QBasic modehas been tested with qb64.

Generate C64 code and run it using cbmbasic:

cd basicmake stepX_YYY.basSTEP=stepX_YYY ./run

Generate QBasic code and load it into qb64:

cd basicmake MODE=qbasic stepX_YYY.bas./qb64 stepX_YYY.bas

Thanks to Steven Syrek for the originalinspiration for this implementation.


The BBC BASIC V implementation can run in the Brandy interpreter:

cd bbc-basicbrandy -quit

Or in ARM BBC BASIC V under RISC OS 3 or later:

*Dir bbc-basic.riscos*Run setup*Run stepX_YYY


The C implementation of mal requires the following libraries (lib andheader packages): glib, libffi6, libgc, and either the libedit or GNU readlinelibrary.

cd cmake./stepX_YYY


The C++ implementation of mal requires g++-4.9 or clang++-3.5 anda readline compatible library to build. See the cpp/ formore details:

cd cppmake # ORmake CXX=clang++-3.5./stepX_YYY


The C# implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the MonoC# compiler (mcs) and the Mono runtime (version Both arerequired to build and run the C# implementation.

cd csmakemono ./stepX_YYY.exe


The ChucK implementation has been tested with ChucK

cd chuck./run


For the most part the Clojure implementation requires Clojure 1.5,however, to pass all tests, Clojure 1.8.0-RC4 is required.

cd clojurelein with-profile +stepX trampoline run


sudo npm install -g coffee-scriptcd coffeecoffee ./stepX_YYY

Common Lisp

The implementation has been tested with SBCL, CCL, CMUCL, GNU CLISP, ECL andAllegro CL on Ubuntu 16.04 and Ubuntu 12.04, seethe README for more details. Provided you have thedependencies mentioned installed, do the following to run the implementation

cd common-lispmake./run


The Crystal implementation of mal has been tested with Crystal 0.26.1.

cd crystalcrystal run ./ # ORmake # needed to run tests./stepX_YYY


The D implementation of mal was tested with GDC 4.8. It requires the GNUreadline library.

cd dmake./stepX_YYY


The Dart implementation has been tested with Dart 1.20.

cd dartdart ./stepX_YYY

Emacs Lisp

The Emacs Lisp implementation of mal has been tested with Emacs 24.3and 24.5. While there is very basic readline editing (and C-d work, C-c cancels the process), it is recommended to userlwrap.

“`cd elispemacs -Q –batch –load stepX_YYY.el

with full readline support

rlwrap emacs -Q –batch –load stepX_YYY.el“`


The Elixir implementation of mal has been tested with Elixir 1.0.5.

“`cd elixirmix stepX_YYY

Or with readline/line editing functionality:

iex -S mix stepX_YYY“`


The Elm implementation of mal has been tested with Elm 0.18.0

cd elmmake stepX_YYY.jsSTEP=stepX_YYY ./run


The Erlang implementation of mal requires Erlang/OTP R17and rebar to build.

cd erlangmake # ORMAL_STEP=stepX_YYY rebar compile escriptize # build individual step./stepX_YYY

ES6 (ECMAScript 2015)

The ES6 / ECMAScript 2015 implementation uses thebabel compiler to generate ES5 compatibleJavaScript. The generated code has been tested with Node 0.12.4.

cd es6makenode build/stepX_YYY.js


The F# implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the MonoF# compiler (fsharpc) and the Mono runtime (version 3.12.1). The mono C#compiler (mcs) is also necessary to compile the readline dependency. All arerequired to build and run the F# implementation.

cd fsharpmakemono ./stepX_YYY.exe


The Factor implementation of mal has been tested with Factor 0.97(

cd factorFACTOR_ROOTS=. factor -run=stepX_YYY


The Fantom implementation of mal has been tested with Fantom 1.0.70.

cd fantommake lib/fan/stepX_YYY.podSTEP=stepX_YYY ./run


cd forthgforth stepX_YYY.fs

GNU Guile 2.1+

cd guileguile -L ./ stepX_YYY.scm

GNU Smalltalk

The Smalltalk implementation of mal has been tested with GNU Smalltalk 3.2.91.

cd gnu-smalltalk./run


The Go implementation of mal requires that go is installed on on thepath. The implementation has been tested with Go 1.3.1.

cd gomake./stepX_YYY


The Groovy implementation of mal requires Groovy to run and has beentested with Groovy 1.8.6.

cd groovymakegroovy ./stepX_YYY.groovy


The Haskell implementation requires the ghc compiler version 7.10.1 orlater and also the Haskell parsec and readline (or editline) packages.

cd haskellmake./stepX_YYY

Haxe (Neko, Python, C++ and JavaScript)

The Haxe implementation of mal requires Haxe version 3.2 to compile.Four different Haxe targets are supported: Neko, Python, C++, andJavaScript.

“`cd haxe


make all-nekoneko ./stepX_YYY.n


make all-pythonpython3 ./


make all-cpp./cpp/stepX_YYY


make all-jsnode ./stepX_YYY.js“`


The Hy implementation of mal has been tested with Hy 0.13.0.

cd hy./stepX_YYY.hy


The Io implementation of mal has been tested with Io version 20110905.

cd ioio ./

Java 1.7

The Java implementation of mal requires maven2 to build.

cd javamvn compilemvn -quiet exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=mal.stepX_YYY # ORmvn -quiet exec:java -Dexec.mainClass=mal.stepX_YYY -Dexec.args="CMDLINE_ARGS"


cd jsnpm updatenode stepX_YYY.js


The Julia implementation of mal requires Julia 0.4.

cd juliajulia stepX_YYY.jl


The Kotlin implementation of mal has been tested with Kotlin 1.0.

cd kotlinmakejava -jar stepX_YYY.jar


The LiveScript implementation of mal has been tested with LiveScript 1.5.

cd livescriptmakenode_modules/.bin/lsc


The Logo implementation of mal has been tested with UCBLogo 6.0.

cd logologo stepX_YYY.lg


The Lua implementation of mal has been tested with Lua 5.2. Theimplementation requires that luarocks and the lua-rex-pcre libraryare installed.

cd luamake # to build and link


Running the mal implementation of mal involves running stepA of one ofthe other implementations and passing the mal step to run as a commandline argument.

“`cd IMPLIMPLSTEPACMD ../mal/stepX_YYY.mal


GNU Make 3.81

cd makemake -f


The NASM implementation of mal is written for x86-64 Linux, and has been testedwith Linux 3.16.0-4-amd64 and NASM version 2.11.05.

cd nasmmake./stepX_YYY

Nim 0.17.0

The Nim implementation of mal has been tested with Nim 0.17.0.

cd nimmake # ORnimble build./stepX_YYY

Object Pascal

The Object Pascal implementation of mal has been built and tested onLinux using the Free Pascal compiler version 2.6.2 and 2.6.4.

cd objpascalmake./stepX_YYY

Objective C

The Objective C implementation of mal has been built and tested onLinux using clang/LLVM 3.6. It has also been built and tested on OSX using XCode 7.

cd objcmake./stepX_YYY

OCaml 4.01.0

cd ocamlmake./stepX_YYY


The MatLab implementation has been tested with GNU Octave 4.2.1.It has also been tested with MATLAB version R2014a on Linux. Note thatMATLAB is a commercial product.

cd matlab./stepX_YYYoctave -q --no-gui --no-history --eval "stepX_YYY();quit;"matlab -nodisplay -nosplash -nodesktop -nojvm -r "stepX_YYY();quit;" # OR with command line argumentsoctave -q --no-gui --no-history --eval "stepX_YYY('arg1','arg2');quit;"matlab -nodisplay -nosplash -nodesktop -nojvm -r "stepX_YYY('arg1','arg2');quit;"


miniMAL is small Lisp interpreterimplemented in less than 1024 bytes of JavaScript. To run the miniMALimplementation of mal you need to download/install the miniMALinterpreter (which requires Node.js).“`cd miniMAL

Download miniMAL and dependencies

npm installexport PATH=pwd/node_modules/minimal-lisp/:$PATH

Now run mal implementation in miniMAL

miniMAL ./stepX_YYY“`

Perl 5

The Perl 5 implementation should work with perl 5.19.3 and later.

For readline line editing support, install Term::ReadLine::Perl orTerm::ReadLine::Gnu from CPAN.

cd perlperl

Perl 6

The Perl 6 implementation was tested on Rakudo Perl 6 2016.04.

cd perl6perl6

PHP 5.3

The PHP implementation of mal requires the php command line interfaceto run.

cd phpphp stepX_YYY.php


The Picolisp implementation requires libreadline and Picolisp 3.1.11or later.

cd picolisp./run


The Pike implementation was tested on Pike 8.0.

cd pikepike stepX_YYY.pike

PL/pgSQL (PostgreSQL SQL Procedural Language)

The PL/pgSQL implementation of mal requires a running PostgreSQL server(the “kanaka/mal-test-plpgsql” docker image automatically startsa PostgreSQL server). The implementation connects to the PostgreSQL serverand create a database named “mal” to store tables and storedprocedures. The wrapper script uses the psql command to connect to theserver and defaults to the user “postgres” but this can be overriddenwith the PSQL_USER environment variable. A password can be specifiedusing the PGPASSWORD environment variable. The implementation has beentested with PostgreSQL 9.4.

cd plpgsql./ stepX_YYY.sql # ORPSQL_USER=myuser PGPASSWORD=mypass ./ stepX_YYY.sql

PL/SQL (Oracle SQL Procedural Language)

The PL/SQL implementation of mal requires a running Oracle DBserver (the “kanaka/mal-test-plsql” docker image automaticallystarts an Oracle Express server). The implementation connects to theOracle server to create types, tables and stored procedures. Thedefault SQL*Plus logon value (username/password@connectidentifier) is”system/oracle” but this can be overridden with the ORACLELOGONenvironment variable. The implementation has been tested with OracleExpress Edition 11g Release 2. Note that any SQL*Plus connectionwarnings (user password expiration, etc) will interfere with theability of the wrapper script to communicate with the DB.

cd plsql./ stepX_YYY.sql # ORORACLE_LOGON=myuser/mypass@ORCL ./ stepX_YYY.sql

PostScript Level 2/3

The PostScript implementation of mal requires Ghostscript to run. Ithas been tested with Ghostscript 9.10.

cd psgs -q -dNODISPLAY -I./


The PowerShell implementation of mal requires the PowerShell scriptlanguage. It has been tested with PowerShell 6.0.0 Alpha 9 on Linux.

cd powershellpowershell ./stepX_YYY.ps1

Python (2.X and 3.X)

cd pythonpython

Python.2 (3.X)

The second Python implementation makes heavy use of type annotations and uses the Arpeggio parser library.


Recommended: do these steps in a Python virtual environment.

pip3 install Arpeggio==1.9.0python3“`


You must have rpython on your path(included with pypy).

cd rpythonmake # this takes a very long time./stepX_YYY


The R implementation of mal requires R (r-base-core) to run.

cd rmake libs # to download and build rdyncallRscript stepX_YYY.r

Racket (5.3)

The Racket implementation of mal requires the Racketcompiler/interpreter to run.

cd racket./stepX_YYY.rkt


The Rexx implementation of mal has been tested with Regina Rexx 3.6.

cd rexxmakerexx -a ./stepX_YYY.rexxpp

Ruby (1.9+)

cd rubyruby stepX_YYY.rb

Rust (1.38+)

The rust implementation of mal requires the rust compiler and buildtool (cargo) to build.

cd rustcargo run --release --bin stepX_YYY


Install scala and sbt (

cd scalasbt 'run-main stepX_YYY' # ORsbt compilescala -classpath target/scala*/classes stepX_YYY

Scheme (R7RS)

The Scheme implementation of mal has been tested with Chibi-Scheme0.7.3, Kawa 2.4, Gauche 0.9.5, CHICKEN 4.11.0, Sagittarius 0.8.3,Cyclone 0.6.3 (Git version) and Foment 0.4 (Git version). You shouldbe able to get it running on other conforming R7RS implementationsafter figuring out how libraries are loaded and adjusting theMakefile and run script accordingly.

“`cd schememake symlinks


scheme_MODE=chibi ./run


make kawascheme_MODE=kawa ./run


scheme_MODE=gauche ./run


make chickenscheme_MODE=chicken ./run


scheme_MODE=sagittarius ./run


make cyclonescheme_MODE=cyclone ./run


scheme_MODE=foment ./run“`


The Skew implementation of mal has been tested with Skew 0.7.42.

cd skewmakenode stepX_YYY.js


The Swift implementation of mal requires the Swift 2.0 compiler (XCode7.0) to build. Older versions will not work due to changes in thelanguage and standard library.

cd swiftmake./stepX_YYY

Swift 3

The Swift 3 implementation of mal requires the Swift 3.0 compiler. Ithas been tested with Swift 3 Preview 3.

cd swift3make./stepX_YYY

Swift 4

The Swift 4 implementation of mal requires the Swift 4.0 compiler. Ithas been tested with Swift 4.2.3 release.

cd swift4make./stepX_YYY

Swift 5

The Swift 5 implementation of mal requires the Swift 5.0 compiler. Ithas been tested with Swift 5.1.1 release.

cd swift5swift run stepX_YYY

Tcl 8.6

The Tcl implementation of mal requires Tcl 8.6 to run. For readline lineediting support, install tclreadline.

cd tcltclsh ./stepX_YYY.tcl


The TypeScript implementation of mal requires the TypeScript 2.2 compiler.It has been tested with Node.js v6.

cd tsmakenode ./stepX_YYY.js


The Vala implementation of mal has been tested with the Vala 0.40.8compiler. You will need to install valac and libreadline-dev orequivalent.

cd valamake./stepX_YYY


The VHDL implementation of mal has been tested with GHDL 0.29.

cd vhdlmake./ ./stepX_YYY


The Vimscript implementation of mal requires Vim 8.0 to run.

cd vimscript./ ./stepX_YYY.vim

Visual Basic.NET

The VB.NET implementation of mal has been tested on Linux using the MonoVB compiler (vbnc) and the Mono runtime (version Both arerequired to build and run the VB.NET implementation.

cd vbmakemono ./stepX_YYY.exe

WebAssembly (wasm)

The WebAssembly implementation is written inWam (WebAssembly Macro language) andruns under several different non-web embeddings (runtimes):node,wasmtime,wasmer,lucet,wax,wace,warpy.

“`cd wasm


make wasmMODE=node./run.js ./stepXYYY.wasm


make wasmMODE=wasmtimewasmtime –dir=./ –dir=../ –dir=/ ./stepXYYY.wasm


make wasmMODE=wasmerwasmer run –dir=./ –dir=../ –dir=/ ./stepXYYY.wasm


make wasmMODE=lucetlucet-wasi –dir=./:./ –dir=../:../ –dir=/:/ ./


make wasmMODE=waxwax ./stepXYYY.wasm


make wasmMODE=wacelibcwace ./stepX_YYY.wasm


make wasmMODE=warpywarpy –argv –memory-pages 256 ./stepXYYY.wasm“`


The Wren implementation of mal was tested on Wren 0.2.0.

cd wrenwren ./stepX_YYY.wren


The Yorick implementation of mal was tested on Yorick 2.2.04.

cd yorickyorick -batch ./stepX_YYY.i

Running tests

The top level Makefile has a number of useful targets to assist withimplementation development and testing. The help target providesa list of the targets and options:

make help

Functional tests

The are almost 800 generic functional tests (for all implementations)in the tests/ directory. Each step has a corresponding test filecontaining tests specific to that step. The test harnesslaunches a Mal step implementation and then feeds the tests one ata time to the implementation and compares the output/return value tothe expected output/return value.

  • To run all the tests across all implementations (be prepared to wait):

make test

  • To run all tests against a single implementation:

“`make “test^IMPL”


make “test^clojure”make “test^js”“`

  • To run tests for a single step against all implementations:

“`make “test^stepX”


make “test^step2″make “test^step7″“`

  • To run tests for a specific step against a single implementation:

“`make “test^IMPL^stepX”


make “test^ruby^step3″make “test^ps^step4″“`

Self-hosted functional tests

  • To run the functional tests in self-hosted mode, you specify malas the test implementation and use the MAL_IMPL make variableto change the underlying host language (default is JavaScript):“`make MAL_IMPL=IMPL “test^mal^step2”


make “test^mal^step2” # js is defaultmake MALIMPL=ruby “test^mal^step2″make MALIMPL=python “test^mal^step2″“`

Starting the REPL

  • To start the REPL of an implementation in a specific step:

“`make “repl^IMPL^stepX”


make “repl^ruby^step3″make “repl^ps^step4″“`

  • If you omit the step, then stepA is used:

“`make “repl^IMPL”


make “repl^ruby”make “repl^ps”“`

  • To start the REPL of the self-hosted implementation, specify mal as theREPL implementation and use the MAL_IMPL make variable to change theunderlying host language (default is JavaScript):“`make MAL_IMPL=IMPL “repl^mal^stepX”


make “repl^mal^step2” # js is defaultmake MALIMPL=ruby “repl^mal^step2″make MALIMPL=python “repl^mal”“`

Performance tests

Warning: These performance tests are neither statistically valid norcomprehensive; runtime performance is a not a primary goal of mal. Ifyou draw any serious conclusions from these performance tests, thenplease contact me about some amazing oceanfront property in Kansasthat I’m willing to sell you for cheap.

  • To run performance tests against a single implementation:“`make “perf^IMPL”


make “perf^js”“`

  • To run performance tests against all implementations:make "perf"

Generating language statistics

  • To report line and byte statistics for a single implementation:“`make “stats^IMPL”


make “stats^js”“`

Dockerized testing

Every implementation directory contains a Dockerfile to createa docker image containing all the dependencies for thatimplementation. In addition, the top-level Makefile contains supportfor running the tests target (and perf, stats, repl, etc) withina docker container for that implementation by passing “DOCKERIZE=1”on the make command line. For example:

make DOCKERIZE=1 "test^js^step3"

Existing implementations already have docker images built and pushedto the docker registry. However, ifyou wish to build or rebuild a docker image locally, the toplevelMakefile provides a rule for building docker images:

make "docker-build^IMPL"

Notes:* Docker images are named “kanaka/mal-test-IMPL”* JVM-based language implementations (Groovy, Java, Clojure, Scala): you will probably need to run this command once manually first make DOCKERIZE=1 "repl^IMPL" before you can run tests because runtime dependencies need to be downloaded to avoid the tests timing out. These dependencies are downloaded to dot-files in the /mal directory so they will persist between runs.


Mal (make-a-lisp) is licensed under the MPL 2.0 (Mozilla PublicLicense 2.0). See LICENSE.txt for more details.

To restore the repository download the bundle


and run:

 git clone kanaka-mal_-_2019-12-02_16-40-25.bundle 

Uploader: kanaka
Upload date: 2019-12-02